Rachel Carson

Rachel Carson

Rachel Carson

Birth : Rachel Louise Carson (1907-05-27)May 27, 1907 Springdale, Pennsylvania, U.S.

Death : April 14, 1964(1964-04-14)(aged 56) Silver Spring, Maryland, U.S.

Personal Information

Name Rachel Carson
Birth (1907-05-27)May 27, 1907 Springdale, Pennsylvania, U.S.
Birth Place Springdale, Pennsylvania, U.S.
Death (1964-04-14)(aged 56) Silver Spring, Maryland, U.S.
Died At Silver Spring, Maryland, U.S.
Alma Mater Chatham University(BA), Johns Hopkins University(MS)

Word Cloud

Events Occured in Scienctist Life

1907

Rachel Louise Carson (May 27, 1907 – April 14, 1964) was an American marine biologist, author, and conservationist whose book Silent Spring and other writings are credited with advancing the global environmental movement.

1950

Carson began her career as an aquatic biologist in the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries, and became a full-time nature writer in the 1950s.

1950

Late in the 1950s, Carson turned her attention to conservation, especially some problems that she believed were caused by synthetic pesticides.

1962

The result was the book Silent Spring (1962), which brought environmental concerns to an unprecedented share of the American people.

1907

Rachel Carson was born on May 27, 1907, on a family farm near Springdale, Pennsylvania, just up the Allegheny River from Pittsburgh.

1925

Carson attended Springdale's small school through tenth grade, then completed high school in nearby Parnassus, Pennsylvania, graduating in 1925 at the top of her class of forty-four students.

1928

She originally studied English, but switched her major to biology in January 1928, though she continued contributing to the school's student newspaper and literary supplement.

1928

Though admitted to graduate standing at Johns Hopkins University in 1928, she was forced to remain at the Pennsylvania College for Women for her senior year due to financial difficulties; she graduated magna cum laude in 1929.

1929

After a summer course at the Marine Biological Laboratory, she continued her studies in zoology and genetics at Johns Hopkins in the fall of 1929.After her first year of graduate school, Carson became a part-time student, taking an assistantship in Raymond Pearl's laboratory, where she worked with rats and Drosophila, to earn money for tuition.

1932

She earned a master's degree in zoology in June 1932.

1934

She had intended to continue for a doctorate, but in 1934 Carson was forced to leave Johns Hopkins to search for a full-time teaching position to help support her family during the Great Depression.

1935

In 1935, her father died suddenly, worsening their already critical financial situation and leaving Carson to care for her aging mother.

1936

Sitting for the civil service exam, she outscored all other applicants and, in 1936, became the second woman hired by the Bureau of Fisheries for a full-time professional position, as a junior aquatic biologist.

1937

However, her family responsibilities further increased in January 1937 when her older sister died, leaving Carson as the sole breadwinner for her mother and two nieces.

1937

In July 1937, the Atlantic Monthly accepted a revised version of an essay, The World of Waters, that she originally wrote for her first fisheries bureau brochure.

1941

Several years of writing resulted in Under the Sea Wind (1941), which received excellent reviews but sold poorly.

1945

Carson attempted to leave the Bureau (by then transformed into the United States Fish and Wildlife Service) in 1945, but few jobs for naturalists were available, as most money for science was focused on technical fields in the wake of the Manhattan Project.

1945

In mid-1945, Carson first encountered the subject of DDT, a revolutionary new pesticide—lauded as the "insect bomb" after the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki—that was only beginning to undergo tests for safety and ecological effects.

1945

Carson rose within the Fish and Wildlife Service, by 1945 supervising a small writing staff and in 1949 becoming chief editor of publications.

1948

By 1948, Carson was working on material for a second book and had made the conscious decision to begin a transition to writing full-time.

1950

Oxford University Press expressed interest in Carson's book proposal for a life history of the ocean, spurring her to complete by early 1950 the manuscript of what would become The Sea Around Us.

1951

Nine chapters were serialized in The New Yorker beginning June 1951 and the book was published July 2, 1951, by Oxford University Press.

1952

The Sea Around Us remained on The New York Times Best Seller list for 86 weeks, was abridged by Reader's Digest, won the 1952 National Book Award for Nonfiction and the John Burroughs Medal, and resulted in Carson's being awarded two honorary doctorates.

1952

With success came financial security, and in 1952 Carson was able to give up her job in order to concentrate on writing full-time.

1953

It went on to win the 1953 Academy Award for Best Documentary Feature, but Carson was so embittered by the experience that she never again sold film rights to her work.

1953

Carson first met Dorothy Freeman in the summer of 1953 in Southport Island, Maine.

1995

Many of these were published in the book Always, Rachel, published in 1995 by Beacon Press.

1995

The surviving correspondence were published in 1995 as Always, Rachel:

1964

In the Spring of 1964, Dorothy received half of Rachel's ashes in the mail sent to her by Robert Carson.

1953

Early in 1953, Carson began library and field research on the ecology and organisms of the Atlantic shore.

1955

In 1955, she completed the third volume of her sea trilogy, The Edge of the Sea, which focuses on life in coastal ecosystems, particularly along the Eastern Seaboard.

1955

Through 1955 and 1956, Carson worked on a number of projects—including the script for an Omnibus episode, "Something About the Sky"—and wrote articles for popular magazines.

1962

Silent Spring, Carson's best-known book, was published by Houghton Mifflin on 27 September 1962.

1994

In 1994, an edition of Silent Spring was published with an introduction written by Vice President Al Gore.

2012

In 2012 Silent Spring was designated a National Historic Chemical Landmark by the American Chemical Society for its role in the development of the modern environmental movement.

1940

Starting in the mid-1940s, Carson had become concerned about the use of synthetic pesticides, many of which had been developed through the military funding of science since World War II.

1957

It was the United States federal government's 1957 gypsy moth eradication program, however, that prompted Carson to devote her research, and her next book, to pesticides and environmental poisons.

1958

By 1958, Carson had arranged a book deal, with plans to co-write with Newsweek science journalist Edwin Diamond.

1957

She also found significant support and extensive evidence from a group of biodynamic agriculture organic market gardeners, their adviser, Dr. Ehrenfried Pfeiffer, other contacts, and their suite of legal actions (1957-1960) against the U.S. Government.

2013

According to recent research by Paull (2013), this may have been the primary and (for strategic reasons) uncredited source for Carson's book.

1959

By 1959, the USDA's Agricultural Research Service responded to the criticism by Carson and others with a public service film, Fire Ant on Trial; Carson characterized it as "flagrant propaganda" that ignored the dangers that spraying pesticides (especially dieldrin and heptachlor) posed to humans and wildlife.

1957

That was also the year of the "Great Cranberry Scandal": the 1957, 1958, and 1959 crops of U.S. cranberries were found to contain high levels of the herbicide aminotriazole (which caused cancer in laboratory rats) and the sale of all cranberry products was halted.

1960

By 1960, Carson had more than enough research material, and the writing was progressing rapidly.

1960

Most of the research and writing was done by the fall of 1960, except for the discussion of recent research on biological pest controls and investigations of a handful of new pesticides.

1961

However, further health troubles slowed the final revisions in 1961 and early 1962.

1961

By August 1961, Carson finally agreed to the suggestion of her literary agent Marie Rodell: Silent Spring would be a metaphorical title for the entire book, suggesting a bleak future for the whole natural world, rather than a literal chapter title about the absence of birdsong.

1962

By mid-1962, Brooks and Carson had largely finished the editing, and were laying the groundwork for promoting the book by sending the manuscript out to select individuals for final suggestions.

1962

Carson attended the White House Conference on Conservation in May 1962; Houghton Mifflin distributed proof copies of Silent Spring to many of the delegates, and promoted the upcoming New Yorker serialization.

1962

Among many others, Carson also sent a proof copy to Supreme Court Associate Justice William O. Douglas, a longtime environmental advocate who had argued against the court's rejection of the Long Island pesticide spraying case (and who had provided Carson with some of the material included in her chapter on herbicides).Though Silent Spring had generated a fairly high level of interest based on prepublication promotion, this became much more intense with the serialization in The New Yorker, which began in the June 16, 1962, issue.

1963

Pesticide use became a major public issue, especially after the CBS Reports TV special The Silent Spring of Rachel Carson that aired April 3, 1963.

1963

The committee issued its report on May 15, 1963, largely backing Carson's scientific claims.

1963

In late 1963, she received a flurry of awards and honors: the Audubon Medal (from the National Audubon Society), the Cullum Geographical Medal (from the American Geographical Society), and induction into the American Academy of Arts and Letters.

1964

Death Weakened from breast cancer and her treatment regimen, Carson became ill with a respiratory virus in January 1964.

1964

She died of a heart attack on April 14, 1964, in her home in Silver Spring, Maryland.

1965

In 1965, Rodell arranged for the publication of an essay Carson had intended to expand into a book: The Sense of Wonder.

1960

Carson's work, and the activism it inspired, are at least partly responsible for the deep ecology movement, and the overall strength of the grassroots environmental movement since the 1960s.

1967

Though environmental concerns about DDT had been considered by government agencies as early as Carson's testimony before the President's Science Advisory Committee, the 1967 formation of the Environmental Defense Fund was the first major milestone in the campaign against DDT.

1972

By 1972, the Environmental Defense Fund and other activist groups had succeeded in securing a phase-out of DDT use in the United States (except in emergency cases).The creation of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) by the Nixon Administration in 1970 addressed another concern that Carson had brought to light.

1980

In the 1980s, the policies of the Reagan Administration emphasized economic growth, rolling back many of the environmental policies adopted in response to Carson and her work.

1980

Perhaps most significantly, on June 9, 1980, Carson was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest civilian honor in the United States.

1973

In 1973, Carson was inducted into the National Women's Hall of Fame.

2016

The University of California, Santa Cruz, named one of its colleges (formerly known as College Eight) to Rachel Carson College in 2016.

2009

Munich's Rachel Carson Center for Environment and Society was founded in 2009.

1975

Carson's birthplace and childhood home in Springdale, Pennsylvania, now known as the Rachel Carson Homestead, became a National Register of Historic Places site and the nonprofit Rachel Carson Homestead Association was created in 1975 to manage it.

1991

Her home in Colesville, Maryland where she wrote Silent Spring was named a National Historic Landmark in 1991.

1975

Near Pittsburgh, a 35.7 miles (57 km) hiking trail, called the Rachel Carson Trail and maintained by the Rachel Carson Trails Conservancy, was dedicated to Carson in 1975.

1964

Between 1964 and 1990, 650 acres (263 ha) near Brookeville in Montgomery County, Maryland were acquired and set aside as the Rachel Carson Conservation Park, administered by the Maryland-National Capital Park and Planning Commission.

1969

In 1969, the Coastal Maine National Wildlife Refuge became the Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge; expansions will bring the size of the refuge to about 9,125 acres (3,693 ha).

1985

In 1985, North Carolina renamed one of its estuarine reserves in honor of Carson, in Beaufort.

1991

The Rachel Carson Prize, founded in Stavanger, Norway in 1991, is awarded to women who have made a contribution in the field of environmental protection.

1993

The American Society for Environmental History has awarded the Rachel Carson Prize for Best Dissertation since 1993.

1998

Since 1998, the Society for Social Studies of Science has awarded an annual Rachel Carson Book Prize for "a book length work of social or political relevance in the area of science and technology studies.

2012

The Society of Environmental Journalists gives an annual award and two honourable mentions for books on environmental issues in Carson's name, such as was awarded to Joe Roman's Listed: Dispatches from America's Endangered Species Act in 2012.The Rachel Carson sculpture in Woods Hole, Massachusetts was unveiled on July 14, 2013.

2014

Google created a Google Doodle for Carson's 107th birthday on May 27, 2014.

2017

Carson was featured during the "HerStory" video tribute to notable women on U2's tour in 2017 for the 30th anniversary of The Joshua Tree during a performance of "Ultraviolet (Light My Way)" from the band's 1991 album Achtung Baby.

2007

The centennial of Carson's birth occurred in 2007.

2007

Also in 2007 American author Ginger Wadsworth wrote a biography of Carson.

1972

Further reading Brooks, Paul (1972).

2018

Lepore, Jill , "The Shore Bird: Rachel Carson and the rising of the seas", The New Yorker, 26 March 2018, pp.

2012

Koehn, Nancy, "From Calm Leadership, Lasting Change", The New York Times, October 27, 2012.

1951

Why Our Winters Are Getting Warmer", November 1951, Popular Science—early article by Rachel Carson about how the ocean's currents affect climate (excerpt from her 1951 book, The Sea Around Us).