Constantine Samuel Rafinesque

Constantine Samuel Rafinesque

Constantine Samuel Rafinesque

Birth : (1783-10-22)October 22, 1783 Galata,Constantinople,Ottoman Empire

Death : September 18, 1840(1840-09-18)(aged 56) Philadelphia, United States

Personal Information

Name Constantine Samuel Rafinesque
Birth (1783-10-22)October 22, 1783 Galata,Constantinople,Ottoman Empire
Birth Place Galata,Constantinople,Ottoman Empire
Death (1840-09-18)(aged 56) Philadelphia, United States
Died At Philadelphia, United States
Nationality French
Fields biologist

Word Cloud

Events Occured in Scienctist Life

1783

Constantine Samuel Rafinesque-Schmaltz (October 22, 1783 – September 18, 1840) was a French 19th-century polymath born near Constantinople in the Ottoman Empire and self-educated in France.

1815

He traveled as a young man in the United States, ultimately settling in Ohio in 1815, where he made notable contributions to botany, zoology, and the study of prehistoric earthworks in North America.

1783

Rafinesque was born on October 22, 1783, in Galata, a suburb of Constantinople.

1793

His father died in Philadelphia about 1793.

1802

In 1802, at the age of 19, Rafinesque sailed to Philadelphia in the United States with his younger brother.

1805

In 1805, Rafinesque returned to Europe with his collection of botanical specimens, and settled in Palermo, Sicily, where he learned Italian.

1808

He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1808.

1815

After their son died in 1815, he left her and returned to the United States.

1817

In 1817, his book Florula Ludoviciana or A Flora of the State of Louisiana was strongly criticized by fellow botanists, which caused his writings to be ignored.

1818

By 1818, he had collected and named more than 250 new species of plants and animals.

1818

In the summer of 1818, in Henderson, Kentucky, Rafinesque made the acquaintance of fellow naturalist John James Audubon, and in fact stayed in Audubon's home for some three weeks.

1819

In 1819, Rafinesque became professor of botany at Transylvania University in Lexington, Kentucky, where he also gave private lessons in French, Italian, and Spanish.

1826

In the spring of 1826, he left the university after quarreling with its president.

1840

Rafinesque died of stomach and liver cancer in Philadelphia on September 18, 1840.

1924

In March 1924, what were thought to be his remains were transported to Transylvania University and reinterred in a tomb under a stone inscribed, "Honor to whom honor is overdue."

1832

In a letter in 1832, Rafinesque wrote:

1861

In the third edition of On the Origin of Species published in 1861, Charles Darwin added a Historical Sketch that acknowledged the ideas of Rafinesque.

1833

Rafinesque's evolutionary theory appears in a two-page article in the 1833 spring issue of the Atlantic Journal and Friend of Knowledge (a journal founded by himself).

1836

In 1836, Rafinesque published his first volume of The American Nations.

1849

For over a century after Rafinesque's publication, the Walam Olum was widely accepted by ethnohistorians as authentically Native American in origin, but as early as 1849, when the document was republished by Ephraim G. Squier, Henry Rowe Schoolcraft, an ethnologist who had worked extensively in Michigan and related territories, wrote to Squier saying that he believed the document might be fraudulent.

1950

In the 1950s, the Indiana Historical Society published a "retranslation" of the Walam Olum, as "a worthy subject for students of aboriginal culture".

1980

Since the late 20th century, studies especially since the 1980s in linguistic, ethnohistorical, archaeological, and textual analyses suggest that the Walam Olum account was largely or entirely a fabrication.

1820

Clifford died suddenly in 1820, ending his contributions.

1848

All sites in Kentucky that were included by E. G. Squier and Davis in their notable Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley (1848), completed for the Smithsonian Institution, were first identified by Rafinesque in his manuscripts.

1832

In 1832, he was the first to partly decipher ancient Maya.

1820

By 1820 he was virtually an outcast in the scientific community as all the important publications rejected his submissions.

1841

In 1841, Thomas Nuttall named a new genus Rafinesquia after Rafinesque.

1892

In 1892, James Hall and J. M. Clarke proposed the genus name Rafinesquina in honor of Rafinesque for a number of fossil brachiopod species then belonging to genus Leptaena; the genus is now in the family Rafinesquinidae.

2011

In popular culture John Jeremiah Sullivan's essay La-Hwi-Ne-Ski: Career of an Eccentric Naturalist, which appears in his 2011 collection, Pulphead, chronicles the life and times of Rafinesque.