|Name||Carl Peter Thunberg|
|Birth||(1743-11-11)11 November 1743 Jönköping, Sweden|
|Birth Place||Jönköping, Sweden|
|Death||(1828-08-08)(aged 84) Thunaberg,Uppland, Sweden|
|Died At||Thunaberg,Uppland, Sweden|
Events Occured in Scienctist Life
Carl Peter Thunberg, also known as Karl Peter von Thunberg, Carl Pehr Thunberg, or Carl Per Thunberg (11 November 1743 – 8 August 1828), was a Swedish naturalist and an "apostle" of Carl Linnaeus.
Thunberg graduated in 1767 after 6 years of studying.
To deepen his knowledge in botany, medicine and natural history, he was encouraged by Linnaeus in 1770 to travel to Paris and Amsterdam.
As the East Indies were under Dutch control, the only way to enter the colonies was via the V.O.C. Hence, Thunberg embarked in December 1771.
In March 1772, he reached Cape Town in South Africa.
Between September 1772 and January 1773, he accompanied the Dutch superintendent of the V.O.C. garden, Johan Andreas Auge.
At the initiative of Linnaeus, he graduated at Uppsala as Doctor of Medicine in absentia while he was at the Cape in 1772.
Thunberg left the Cape for Batavia on 2 March 1775.
He arrived in Batavia on 18 May 1775, and left for Japan on 20 June.
In August 1775, he arrived at the Dutch factory of the V.O.C. at Dejima, a small artificial island (120 m by 75 m) in the Bay of Nagasaki connected to the city by a single small bridge.
These restrictions had been imposed by the Japanese shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu in 1639 after the Portuguese, who had been the first Europeans to arrive in Japan in 1543, persisted in missionary activity.
Due to his scientific reputation, Thunberg was given the opportunity in 1776 to accompany the Dutch ambassador M. Feith to the shogun's court in Edo, today's Tokyo.
It is during this time that Thunberg started writing two of his scientific works, the Flora Japonica (1784) and the Fauna Japonica (1833).
The latter was completed by the German traveller Philipp Franz von Siebold, who visited Japan between 1823 and 1829 and based the Fauna Japonica on Thunberg's notes which he carried with him all the time in Japan.
In November 1776, after Thunberg had returned from the shogun's court, he left for Java, now part of Indonesia.
From there, he travelled to Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) in July 1777.
In February 1778, Thunberg left Ceylon to return to Europe.
In 1778, Thunberg left Ceylon for Amsterdam, with a two week stay at the Cape.
He finally arrived at Amsterdam in October 1778.
He saw there the Japanese collection from the 1680s of the German naturalist Engelbert Kaempfer (1651–1716), who had preceded him at Dejima.
On arrival in Sweden in March 1779, he learned of the death of Linnaeus one year earlier.
Thunberg was first appointed botanical demonstrator in 1777, and in 1781 professor of medicine and natural philosophy at the University of Uppsala.
He published his Flora Japonica in 1784, and in 1788 he began to publish his travels.
He completed his Prodromus Plantarum in 1800, his Icones Plantarum Japonicarum in 1805, and his Flora Capensis in 1813.
In 1776, while still in Asia, he had been elected a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
He was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 1791.
In 1809 he became correspondent, and in 1823 an associate member of the Royal Institute of the Netherlands.
He died at Thunaberg near Uppsala on 8 August 1828.
In 1690, Engelbert Kaempfer, a German traveller, had sailed to Japan and spent two years on the island of Deshima.
Kaempfer's 1729 travelogue became a famous work on the shogunate; yet, when Thunberg came to Japan, Kaempfer's writings were already more than fifty years old.
Selected publications BotanyFlora Japonica (1784)
Kaross und Kimono: „Hottentotten“ und Japaner im Spiegel des Reiseberichts von Carl Peter Thunberg, 1743 – 1828.